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Deductive Reasoning

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                   DEDUCTIVE REASONING – CLAT 2020

                  The recent announcements indicate a change in the pattern of CLAT 2020 exam and this has resulted in anguish and confusion among CLAT aspirants nationwide. The major worry is caused by introduction of 
                  Deductive Reasoning as a new component. Students see Deductive Reasoning as totally new way of testing and tend to wrongly assume that Legal Aptitude will not be tested at all. It is true that the final picture
                  will be clear only when the notification is published, along with a possible model paper, by the authorities, which contains deductive reasoning question also.

                   As an institute engaged in training CLAT aspirants for more than a decade, we would like to share  our insights and suggestions regarding the confusion and unsolicited anguish that is prevalent among
                   students presently, primarily due to concerns about Deductive reasoning.


                   The change projected and expected can be put in a nutshell like this. Instead of testing the  theoretical knowledge of concepts in law of a candidate, it will be his/her comprehension and interpretation skills which will
                   be tested. For eg., in earlier test papers, a  candidate was expected to know the meaning of a legal maxims like ‘audi alteram partem’ which means hear the other side also before a judicial decision is arrived at;
                   whereas from now onwards instead of giving the maxims per se, their practical explanations will be given. In a way this new pattern is going to be more helpful and easy for candidates, because in place of ‘remember
                   and reproduce,’  it will be ‘read, interpret and apply.’

                   Questions in Deductive Reasoning had already come in CLAT exams in earlier years.  They may give more emphasis on Deductive reasoning and questions could be set with that intend. Deductive Reasoning is the
                   process of arriving at a logical conclusion from one or more statements or premises given. A simple example of Deductive Reasoning is ‘if A=B and B=C then A=C. Syllogism, Analogy drawing parallels are all examples of
                   Deductive Reasoning. So  most probably, this year, legal aptitude questions will incorporate the elements of reasoning. Even in the previous years, we were given such questions where it was more directly given as a
                   legal principle and then how you will apply that principle in the given situation.

                   Let me give some possible verities of  questions , where in elements of deductive reasoning is sandwiched to legal aptitude

                   DIRECTIONS for the question 1 to 20: In each of the questions given below, there are two statements marked as Assertion (A) and Reason (R). Mark your answer as per the codes provided below:
                   1)Both A and R are true and R is the correct explanation of A.
                   2)Both A and R are true but R is not the correct explanation of A.
                   3)A is true but R is false.
                   4)A is false but R is true.
                   5)Both A and R are false.
                   A-Indian constitution contains amendment provision.
                   R-Time to time review and reshaping of laws will be a requirement for any statute.

                   Here the answer is option 2. Though this appears to be a question involving legal terms, basically it is a test on your deductive reasoning ability.

                   Another example of a possible paragraph given to read and interpret can be like.
                   Buyer Beware means, the responsibility is on the buyer to ensure that he gets the product of his need and description in all situation.
                   This does not endorse a privilege for the seller to bluff the buyer.
                   Only apparent defects are covered by this principle and latent defects knowing to the seller must be disclosed.
                   Deceptive advertisement cannot take cover under the principle buyer beware.
                   Prashob went to a showroom to buy a car model No.2010. The advertisement of the said model described the car as Hybrid version and so runs on dual fuel sources.  When Prashob test drove the vehichle
                   it was apparent that the car was running only on Petrol and no switching mechanisms were visible. He purchased the car paying the price, later on he sued the car manufacturers and dealers saying that

                   it is not a hybrid ersion.

                   Applying  first principle alone
                   A Prashob is entitled to compensation as the company bluffed the customer.
  1. Prashob will lose as the defect was apparent.
  2. Prashob will succeed as seller should disclose all related facts to the vehicle.
  3. Prashob will lose as it is his responsibility to ensure the quality and description of the product in all situations.

                   On a query from prashob regarding the dual fuel possibility, the sales men told him that with an additional modification for rs 10,000, the hybrid possibility can be activated. Later on Prashob has to pay
                   1,00,000 for converting the car to Hybrid format.Applying second principle alone.

                   B) 1)Company will succeed as the defect was apparent.
                   2)Prashob will succeed as the company resorted to deceptive advertisement.
                   3)Prashob will succeed as the sales men bluffed him.
                   4) None of the above.

                   C)The company will succeed in all situations, if
  1. Principle 1 is strictly followed always.
  2. If they can prove they did not bluff in any manner, if allegation is regarding bluffing.
  3. If they have not made any deceptive advertisement, if allegation is with respect to deceptive advertising.
  4. All of the above.

                   Once you try to answer these questions, you will understand how to arrive at conclusions from a given premises. Answers are A-3 , B- 3, c- 4

                   It is therefore sure that prior familiarisation with legal terms, concepts and ways of application definitely helps a candidate to comprehend a given premise containing legal terms. So practising previous years’
                   questions will help us get exposure to that kind of thinking which our brain may not be generally used to. The shift is mainly from quizzing type of questions to thinking and applying type. So practice is the lone
                   way to master the ability to answer deductive reasoning questions.